Hoakin Fanhul

Hoakin Fanhul

Spanish military leader
Date of Birth: 30.05.1880
Country: Spain

  1. Biography of Joaquin Fanjul
  2. Early Life and Military Career
  3. Combat Actions and Political Involvement
  4. Role in the Civil War
  5. Death and Legacy

Biography of Joaquin Fanjul

Early Life and Military Career

Joaquin Fanjul was a Spanish military commander and general. He served as an infantry officer and participated in the Spanish-American War of 1898. Afterward, Fanjul was stationed in Pamplona. He graduated from the Higher Military School and became an officer of the General Staff, also obtaining a law degree. Fanjul authored studies on military sociology, including "The Social Mission of the Army. Military Sociology" published in Madrid in 1907.

Combat Actions and Political Involvement

Fanjul took part in military operations in Morocco, earning early promotions to major (1910), lieutenant colonel (1915), and brigadier general (1926, promoted to colonel two years prior). He held strong conservative and monarchist views. Starting in 1918, he was involved with the conservative "Maurists" party, which supported the political figure Antonio Maura. In 1919, Fanjul was elected as a deputy of the Cortes (parliament) representing Cuénca.

After the declaration of the Spanish Republic, Fanjul was reelected as a deputy for Cuénca in 1931 (as an independent) and 1933 (as part of a coalition between the Agrarian Party and the Spanish Confederation of Independent Right). He was one of the founders of the Spanish Military Union. From 1934 to 1935, Fanjul held positions as chief of staff of the army and then deputy minister of war under José María Gil-Robles. However, he later distanced himself from the CEDA (Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights) because it recognized the republic and became a supporter of the monarchist José Calvo Sotelo.

Role in the Civil War

In 1935, Fanjul was promoted to divisional general, and in January 1936, he was appointed commander of the Canary Islands troops. However, he held this position briefly as General Francisco Franco was appointed to replace him in February 1936, effectively removing Franco from Madrid, where he had been serving as chief of the General Staff.

Upon returning to Madrid, General Fanjul participated in a military conspiracy against the Popular Front government and maintained active contacts with General Emilio Mola. As part of the distribution of responsibilities among the generals involved in the conspiracy, Fanjul was tasked with leading the military uprising in Madrid, which took place on July 19, 1936, at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Adopting a defensive tactic and displaying hesitation, the nationalists were blocked in the "Montaña" barracks and could only hope for reinforcements from Valladolid and Burgos. However, these reinforcements never arrived. The barracks came under artillery bombardment and aerial attacks, followed by an assault by Republican forces, who executed around a hundred captured participants of the uprising. Fanjul was wounded and captured along with his son, José Ignacio (a lieutenant in the medical service), and Colonel Fernandez Quintana.

Death and Legacy

On August 15, 1936, General Fanjul was sentenced to death. He was executed on August 17, along with Colonel Fernandez Quintana. His son was killed in prison on August 23 of the same year. Streets in Madrid and other cities in Spain are named in memory of General Fanjul.