Fedor Urkovskiy

Fedor Urkovskiy

Russian revolutionary populist
Country: Ukraine

  1. Biography of Fyodor Yurkovsky
  2. Revolutionary Activities
  3. Master of Disguise
  4. Arrests and Escapes
  5. Imprisonment and Death

Biography of Fyodor Yurkovsky

Fyodor Nikolayevich Yurkovsky was a Russian revolutionary and a member of the populist movement. He was the son of Nikolay Fyodorovich Yurkovsky, a hero of the Crimean War. Yurkovsky was popularly known as "Sashka-Engineer". He attended the Naval School, the Technological Institute, and the Medical-Surgical Academy, although he did not complete his studies at any of these institutions.

Revolutionary Activities

From the early 1870s, Yurkovsky participated in revolutionary circles in the south of Russia. While he did not officially belong to any of these circles, he was associated with the group led by I.M. Kovalsky. Yurkovsky advocated for revolutionary action to agitate the masses, unlike the proponents of "going to the people" who focused on education and persuasion. This led to him being called a terrorist, with Andrey Zhelyabov stating that Yurkovsky was even more dangerous than monarchists.

Master of Disguise

Yurkovsky was an experienced conspirator and a master of disguise. He was known for his exceptional boldness in carrying out actions. A characteristic description of him in an orientation note from the Third Department read, "A brave, resolute man who is not afraid of death, a fervent revolutionary." He was one of the first among the nihilists to wear the "revolutionary uniform," which included carrying a dagger and a revolver, as depicted in a well-known photograph. Yurkovsky also worked in a forge, manufacturing cold weapons for the needs of the revolutionaries.

Arrests and Escapes

In 1874-1875, Yurkovsky was arrested and interrogated for revolutionary propaganda. In 1875, he killed a spy-provocateur named V. Tavleev. In 1880, Yurkovsky organized a tunneling operation and expropriated funds (1.5 million rubles) from the Kherson Provincial Treasury, which he later wrote about in his memoir "How I Abolished the Kherson Treasury." He was consulted by the leadership of "Land and Freedom" and "People's Will" on tunneling operations in preparation for assassinations of Alexander II.

Imprisonment and Death

Yurkovsky was arrested in 1880 and sentenced to 20 years of hard labor. He was sent to the Kara penal colony, where he was involved in the so-called "Uspensky case." P. Uspensky, a member of the Nechaevtsy group, was suspected by the prisoners of treason (probably without any grounds). Yurkovsky carried out the death sentence by hanging Uspensky in a bathhouse. In May 1882, Yurkovsky escaped from the penal colony but was captured by Cossacks on the China border. He was then transferred to St. Petersburg, where he was imprisoned in the Trubetskoy Bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress, and later in Shlisselburg. It was during his time in prison that Yurkovsky began writing his autobiographical novel "Bulgakov," which was published in 1933.

Fyodor N. Yurkovsky died in Shlisselburg and was buried in an unknown location.