Fritz Pfeffer

Fritz Pfeffer

German dentist
Date of Birth: 30.04.1889
Country: Germany

  1. Biography of Fritz Pfeffer
  2. Early Life and Career
  3. Family Life
  4. Life in Amsterdam
  5. Escape to Amsterdam
  6. Hiding with Anne Frank
  7. Arrest and Death

Biography of Fritz Pfeffer

Fritz Pfeffer was a German dentist of Jewish origin. During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, he went into hiding with Anne Frank. In Anne's renowned diary, he is depicted under the pseudonym 'Albert Dussel'.

Early Life and Career

Fritz was born in Giessen, Germany, and was one of five children of the owners of a clothing store. After completing his education, Pfeffer pursued dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. He obtained his license and opened his own practice in Berlin.

Family Life

During World War I, Pfeffer served in the German army. After the war, he married Vera Bythiner, and they had a son named Werner Peter Pfeffer in April 1927. However, the couple divorced in 1932, and Pfeffer gained custody of their son. He raised Werner on his own until November 1938, when he sent him to England to live with his brother due to the rise of anti-Semitic sentiments in Germany.

Life in Amsterdam

With the Nazis coming to power, Pfeffer decided to send his son and other relatives out of Germany. Despite the risks, he chose to stay in his homeland. In 1936, he met Charlotte Kaletta, but they were unable to marry due to the newly enacted laws.

Escape to Amsterdam

After Kristallnacht, Pfeffer and Charlotte realized it was time to flee Berlin. In December 1938, they arrived in Amsterdam, where they had to officially separate and register at different addresses due to laws prohibiting relationships between Jews and non-Jews. Pfeffer opened a dental clinic in Amsterdam.

Hiding with Anne Frank

In the fall of 1942, Pfeffer went into hiding with the help of Miep Gies, a Dutch woman who was also assisting Otto Frank. Pfeffer was placed in the same room as Anne Frank, much to her displeasure. The two clashed due to their contrasting personalities. Pfeffer annoyed Anne with his pedantic nature, and she frustrated him with her capriciousness and activity.

Arrest and Death

Pfeffer left a farewell note for Charlotte and maintained contact with her through Miep Gies. However, someone betrayed the hiding place, and on August 4, 1944, Pfeffer and seven other occupants were arrested and sent to concentration camps. After being held in various locations, Pfeffer was deported to Auschwitz on September 3 and later transferred to Sachsenhausen and Neuengamme. He died in Neuengamme on December 20, 1944, from enterocolitis.