Isaak Newton

Isaak Newton

English mathematician and physicist
Date of Birth: 04.01.1643
Country: Great Britain

  1. Biography of Sir Isaac Newton
  2. Contributions to Science
  3. Academic Career
  4. Early Life
  5. University Years
  6. Later Life and Legacy

Biography of Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton, an English mathematician and physicist, is rightfully regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica," which laid out the foundations of classical mechanics, was first published in 1687.

Isaak Newton

Contributions to Science

Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated the study of the structure of the physical universe for the next three centuries. After Kepler discovered the laws of planetary motion in the Solar System, Newton's laws of gravitation further solidified the heliocentric model of the cosmos. Newton constructed the first operational reflecting telescope and developed the theory of color based on observations of white light being separated into its spectral colors using a prism. He also formulated the empirical law of thermal radiation and studied the speed of sound. In addition to his work in calculus, Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalized the binomial theorem, and devised the Newton-Raphson method for finding roots of a function.

Academic Career

Newton was a member of Trinity College and a mathematics professor at the University of Cambridge. While he had an interest in alchemy and theology, Newton did not publish any works on chemistry or alchemy, and he approached the Bible from a rationalistic perspective. According to his calculations, he believed the end of the world would not occur before 2060. He refused to accept spiritual ordination from the Anglican Church, possibly because he rejected the doctrine of Trinitarianism. Towards the end of his life, Newton became the president of the Royal Society.

Early Life

Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England, to a farming family. His father died before his birth, and his mother, Hannah Ayscough, remarried and had three more children. Newton received less attention from his mother, causing him to become introverted. He immersed himself in reading and found solace in crafting unusual mechanical toys. In 1655, Newton enrolled in The King's School in Grantham and lived with an apothecary. After his stepfather's death, Newton's mother brought him back to their estate in an attempt to involve him in managing the property. However, Newton despised rural life and preferred poetry over helping his mother. Eventually, he returned to school, where he became one of the top students.

University Years

In 1661, Newton began his studies at Trinity College as a "sizar," a poor student who effectively served as a servant in the college to pay for his education. During his university years, Newton remained distant and indifferent to fame, focusing entirely on understanding the essence of things. In 1665, Newton received his bachelor's degree. During this time, he compiled a list of about 45 unresolved global questions in nature and human life. From 1665 to 1667, he formulated his main ideas, which later evolved into the system of differential and integral calculus, the invention of the reflecting telescope, and the discovery of the law of universal gravitation. Newton maintained his connection with Trinity College for over 30 years and conducted his experiments on the decomposition of light there. In 1668, he was awarded a master's degree and was given a separate room and a salary. Although he lectured on standard subjects to a group of students, his classes were poorly attended and he never gained popularity.

Later Life and Legacy

In 1687, Newton published his monumental work, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy." Around the same time, he clashed with King James II, and it was only after James II was overthrown that Newton was first elected to parliament representing the University of Cambridge. Starting in 1699, Newton's system of the world began to be taught in Cambridge, and from 1704, it was also taught in Oxford. In December 1701, Newton officially resigned from all his positions at Cambridge and retired. In 1705, Queen Anne knighted Newton for his scientific achievements, making him the first person to receive such an honor in the history of England. However, according to one version, Sir Isaac Newton was knighted for political reasons. Shortly before his death, Newton suffered financial losses in the South Sea Company stock market crash. He passed away in his sleep on March 31, 1727. Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen suggests that Newton's difficulty with social interaction and lack of connections may have been due to Asperger's syndrome. Overall, Newton's contributions to science revolutionized our understanding of the physical world and laid the foundation for future scientific advancements.