Henri Coanda

Henri Coanda

Romanian scientist, pioneer of aerodynamics and discoverer of the Coanda effect
Date of Birth: 07.06.1886
Country: Romania

Biography of Henri Coanda

Henri Marie Coanda, a Romanian scientist, pioneer of aerodynamics, and the discoverer of the Coanda effect, was born on June 7, 1886, in Bucharest. His father was a mathematics professor at the National School of Bridges and Roads, while his mother was the daughter of a French doctor, Gustave Danet.

Henri Coanda

As a child, Coanda was fascinated by the power of the wind. He began his education at the Saint Sava National College but was later sent to the Military High School in Iasi by his father, who wanted him to pursue a military career. After graduating in 1903, Coanda continued his education at the School of Artillery, Military, and Naval Engineering in Bucharest.

Henri Coanda

In 1904, he enrolled at the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Germany. Despite achieving the rank of artillery officer, Coanda was more interested in the technical problems of flight. In 1905, he built an aircraft-shell for the Romanian army, showcasing his passion for aviation.

Henri Coanda

Coanda furthered his studies at the Montefiore Institute in Liege, Belgium, where he met aviation engineer Gianni Caproni. Returning to Romania in 1908, he was allowed to leave the army and pursued his studies at the Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Ingenieurs en Construction Aeronautique in Paris in 1909.

While working in Caproni's workshop, Coanda constructed a model aircraft called the "Coanda-1910," which featured a four-cylinder piston engine that supplied air to the combustion chambers. This design led to the development of the technology for reactive thrust, which Coanda patented in France, Great Britain, and Switzerland. In October 1910, the "Coanda-1910" aircraft took flight with Coanda at the controls, but it crashed due to a loss of control. This event sparked Coanda's discovery of the Coanda effect.

From 1911 to 1914, Coanda served as the technical director of the Bristol Aeroplane Company in Great Britain, where he designed several aircraft known as the "Bristol-Coanda Monoplanes." In 1915, he returned to France and worked on three different models of piston engine aircraft, including the "Coanda-1916" with propellers located close to the tail.

Between the World Wars, Coanda continued to travel and invent. In 1934, he received a patent for the Coanda effect in France. During the early 1930s, he began laying the groundwork for a disc-shaped aircraft called the "Aerodina Lenticulara" or the "flying saucer," but the project was not fully developed.

During World War II, Coanda worked for the Nazis in occupied France. In 1969, during the era of Ceausescu, he returned to Romania and became the director of the Institute of Scientific and Technical Creativity. In 1971, Coanda opened the Mechanical Engineering Faculty at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. He passed away on November 25, 1972, in Bucharest.

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