Aby-l-Valid Myhamad Ibn-Rushd

Aby-l-Valid Myhamad Ibn-Rushd

Famous Arab philosopher
Country: Spain

  1. Biography of Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd
  2. Rise and Fall in Favor
  3. Contributions to Philosophy and Astronomy

Biography of Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd

Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd, also known as Averroes, was a renowned Arab philosopher born in Cordova, Spain in 1126 and died in Marrakesh, Morocco in 1198. His father held the position of chief judge and mufti. Ibn Rushd studied under the most famous scholars of his time and had friendly relations with the theosophist Ibn al-Arabi and the renowned scholars Ibn Tufayl and Ibn Zuhr.

Aby-l-Valid Myhamad Ibn-Rushd

Rise and Fall in Favor

Thanks to his talents and knowledge, Ibn Rushd achieved high honorary positions under the Almohad Sultan Yusuf (1163-1184) and served in Morocco, Seville, and Cordova. Initially, he enjoyed great favor with Sultan Almanzor-Billah, but later he was accused by his detractors of not adhering to the teachings of the Quran. As a result, he fell out of favor with Almanzor and was removed from his positions. He lived in exile in Elizena or Lucena, near Cordova.

Several years later, when the Sultan himself became interested in and began to study philosophy, Ibn Rushd was once again summoned to the court in Morocco and showered with evidence of favor. However, shortly after this, he passed away on December 12, 1198, in Morocco.

Contributions to Philosophy and Astronomy

Ibn Rushd translated and provided explanations of Aristotle's works with a deep understanding of the subject. However, it is impossible not to notice in his works, as with most Arab philosophers, the influence of Alexandrian views, laid the foundation for commentaries by Ammonius, Themistius, and others. He always stood up as a rationalistic defender of philosophy against Arab orthodoxy, particularly Al-Ghazali.

Most of his works have only survived in Latin translations. His commentaries on Aristotle were published in a comprehensive edition of Aristotle's works in Venice in 1560. He also wrote a medical system titled "Colliget" (corrupted Arabic "Kulliyat," meaning general, system), which was translated into Latin and reprinted several times.

Many of his works were also translated into Hebrew. In the Christian Church, Averroes' philosophy gained significant importance as early as the 13th century, although his pantheistic doctrine of the unity of action of the world principle was rejected by the scholastics as a misconception, as was astrology, labeled Averroism.

Furthermore, Ibn Rushd gained recognition as an astronomer through his observations of solar spots. M.J. Müller made a significant contribution to the study and dissemination of Ibn Rushd's philosophical works by publishing the Arabic texts of "Philosophy and Theology of Averroes" (Munich, 1859), which was later translated beautifully by the Bavarian Academy (Munich, 1875).