Kalvin Kulidj

Kalvin Kulidj

30th President of the United States (1923-29) Republican
Date of Birth: 04.07.1872
Country: USA

  1. Calvin Coolidge - Biography
  2. Political Career
  3. Governorship and Presidency
  4. Political Course and Legacy

Calvin Coolidge - Biography

Calvin Coolidge, the 30th President of the United States (1923-1929), was born on July 4, 1872, in Plymouth, Vermont. He attended Amherst College in Massachusetts and graduated in 1891. After completing his education, he studied law and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1897. He began his legal practice in Northampton the following year and developed an interest in municipal politics. In 1898, he was elected to the city council and remained actively involved in public service ever since.

Political Career

In 1907, Coolidge became a member of the Massachusetts General Court. After serving two terms in the court, he was elected as the mayor of Northampton and later as a senator for the state. During his tenure as a senator, he served as the chairman from 1914 to 1915. He also led the Massachusetts Republican Committee and served as the state's vice governor for three terms. In 1918, when Governor Samuel W. McCall resigned, Coolidge was unanimously nominated by the Republican party as their candidate. He was elected and assumed office in January 1919.

Governorship and Presidency

As the governor of Massachusetts, Coolidge did not propose any radical changes but gained attention for his decisive actions during the Boston police strike. The strike was declared on September 9, 1919, in protest against a police commissioner's decision that prohibited officers from joining the American Federation of Labor. Despite multiple unsuccessful attempts to negotiate with the strikers, Coolidge mobilized the state guard and personally led the maintenance of law and order. His statement, "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time," gained nationwide recognition.

After the Republican National Convention nominated Warren G. Harding for the presidency in 1920, Coolidge was selected as the vice-presidential candidate, and they won the election. Coolidge became the President of the United States on August 2, 1923, following Harding's death. During his presidency, the Republican Party faced challenges, including dissatisfaction in the traditionally Republican agrarian regions of the Midwest and scandals associated with Harding's administration. However, Coolidge was re-elected for a second term, defeating Democrat John W. Davis and Progressive Robert La Follette.

Political Course and Legacy

Coolidge pursued a simple political course, reducing taxes and supporting private enterprise. In 1924, he appointed a commission to investigate the transfer of naval oil reserves to private companies in the Teapot Dome scandal inherited from the Harding administration. He also vetoed a bill for soldier's bonuses in 1924 and a McNary-Haugen bill to aid farmers in 1927. In foreign policy, Coolidge advocated for the United States to become a member of the International Court of Justice, but the country was denied admission due to numerous reservations in the bill. Under the leadership of Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon, negotiations were conducted to settle foreign debts owed to the United States.

During Coolidge's presidency, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which rejected war as an instrument of national policy, was signed by the majority of major countries worldwide. The economy thrived under Coolidge's policies, with significant reductions in income and corporate taxes and the repayment of a large portion of the national debt. However, his presidency also witnessed the onset of the economic crisis that followed his departure from office in 1929.

After leaving the White House on March 4, 1929, Coolidge engaged in entrepreneurial activities and wrote an autobiography, as well as articles for newspapers and magazines. He passed away in Northampton on January 5, 1933.