Karl Landsteiner

Karl Landsteiner

Austrian physician and immunologist
Date of Birth: 14.06.1868
Country: Austria

Biography of Karl Landsteiner

Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) was an Austrian physician and immunologist. He was born on June 14, 1868, in Vienna. He graduated from the University of Vienna and obtained his medical degree in 1891. From 1909 to 1919, he served as a professor of pathological anatomy at the University of Vienna.

In 1922, Landsteiner moved to the United States and worked at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York until 1939. His main research focused on immunology and immunochemistry. In 1930, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human blood groups.

One of Landsteiner's most significant contributions was his discovery of the three main blood groups in humans in 1900. His work, along with the research of Czech hematologist Jan Janský, laid the foundation for blood transfusion-related issues.

Landsteiner also studied infectious pathology and developed methods for microbiological and serological diagnosis of syphilis. In 1909, he, along with his colleagues, demonstrated the infectious nature of poliomyelitis. In 1927, he and Philip Levine discovered the M and N antigens in human red blood cells, and in 1940, he, along with Alexander Wiener, discovered the Rh factor.

Through his extensive research, Landsteiner showed that the specificity of an antigen is determined by its determinant group. Some of his notable works include "Human Blood Groups," "Etiology of Paroxysmal Hemoglobinuria," "Etiology of Poliomyelitis," "Chemistry of Antigens," and "Studies on Syphilis."

Karl Landsteiner passed away on June 26, 1943, in New York City. His contributions to the field of immunology and blood typing continue to have a profound impact on medicine and transfusion practices.