Leopold Kronecker

Leopold Kronecker

German mathematician
Date of Birth: 07.12.1823
Country: Germany

  1. Biography of Leopold Kronecker
  2. Contributions to Mathematics
  3. Academic Involvement

Biography of Leopold Kronecker

Leopold Kronecker was a German mathematician and the brother of renowned physiologist Hugo Kronecker (1830-1914). He was born into a Jewish family but converted to Christianity a year before his death. Kronecker was a foreign corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1872) and a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (1861). He held a professorship at the University of Berlin.

Contributions to Mathematics

Kronecker's main works focused on algebra and number theory, where he continued the research of his teacher, Ernst Kummer, on quadratic forms and group theory. He made significant contributions to the arithmetic theory of algebraic quantities. He was a proponent of the "arithmetization" of mathematics, which aimed to reduce mathematics to the study of integers as he believed that only integers had true reality. He engaged in vigorous debates with the principles of the theoretical-functional school of Karl Weierstrass and the set-theoretic school of Georg Cantor. One of his famous expressions was: "God created the natural numbers; all else is the work of man."

Kronecker wrote over 120 major and minor memoirs, which were published in specialized journals. Through his research, he obtained new data for number theory by applying elliptic functions. His "Grundzüge einer arithmet. Theorie der algebraischen Grössen" was published as a commemorative edition in honor of Kummer (Berlin, 1882), along with a reprint of his doctoral dissertation "De unitatibus complexis." His memoirs "Ueber den Zahlenbegriff" appeared in "Philosoph. Aufsätze" (Leipzig, 1887), published on the occasion of Eduard Celler's 50th doctoral anniversary.

Academic Involvement

Upon the request of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, Kronecker began the publication of his teacher Dirichlet's works (Vol. I, Berlin, 1890). His correspondence with Dirichlet was published by Schering in "Göttinger Nachrichte" in 1885. With the assistance of Weierstrass, Helmholtz, Schröter, and Fuchs, Kronecker continued the publication of the "Journal für Mathematik," which was founded by Krell. His research and lectures were published by Netto and Hensel.